What is weak AI, AGI, ASI, Turing Test, and Coffee Test?

Hello!, Welcome to COT. Nowadays everyone is busy with deep learning, and data science kind of stuffs, many new people are also joining the field of AI, but Artificial General Intelligence(AGI), ASI is talked very less. So, in this article I will introduce you to AGI, ASI(Artificial Super Intelligence), and more.

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These are the main topics we will be talking about in this article.

1. What is intelligence?.

2. What are the types of AI?.

3. What is Turing Test in AI?. What is Coffee Test?.

Let’s get started with the first which is “Types of AI”;


1. What is intelligence?.

If you Google, it says “the ability to understand and think”. It also says “important information about an enemy country” :). Yeah, it looks simple, but it took millions of years. We call ourselves intelligent, and most of our research is based on that. So, here are the intelligent things we do, and based on that you can guess what we human are trying to achieve.

  • Perception: Taking through senses, and then understand.
  • Attention: listening, thinking, touching, watching carefully. Do not look somewhere else, pay attention to this article.
  • Motivation: It is a reason for actions, and goals.
  • Emotions: Love, fear of loosing someone, hate, anger.
  • Communication: look at cows, and buffaloes. They can’t communicate like us. If they do, then very less. Communication can form its own consciousness, you may have observed it. 
  • Creation: Creating violence may be?.

There are many more, but you may have got the idea. Let’s move ahead. 


2. What are the types of AI?.

AI is Artificial Intelligence, intelligence created artificially, or created by humans. We call ourselves intelligent beings, and the whole artificial intelligence thing is came from that. So, we also categorize AI with respect to our intelligence. AI is categorized into three parts in terms of intelligence, I will explain them one by one.

(i) Weak AI

(ii) Strong AI, or Artificial General Intelligence(AGI).

(iii) Artificial Super Intelligence(ASI).


(i) What is Weak AI?

Most of AIs which companies create buzz about like face recognition, Siri, IBM Watson, FB news feed, and whatever DeepMind is doing are weak AI. They are intelligent, but limited for specific kind of tasks. For example, If there is an AI system which recognizes people, and their movements in video, then it takes actions according what it was trained for. If we manipulate it, then it may also work on dogs. Now, tell the AI that talk to people, make some friends, make a cup of coffee, have a girlfriend etc. it will fail completely. Now, if you give that task to a human, it can learn, and can do multitasking as well. There is no doubt all humans can make friends.

It just can’t match with our level, or human intelligence. So, AI which has lesser intelligence than humans is called weak AI.


(ii)What is Strong AI, or AGI?

We already saw that weak AI can’t match with human intelligence, it has lesser intelligence. Artificial general intelligence, as its name suggests, it generalizes all kind of intelligent activities done by different AIs. It can make friends, can recognize faces, can learn, and it can also play games. AGI can match with human intelligence.

Some of papers have introduced a term called Core AGI Hypothesis. Many people have accepted it. It was first introduced by a Japanese researcher as this paper says. I have taken from the English review paper, you can see it below. 

Core AGI hypothesis:

“the creation and study of synthetic intelligences with sufficiently broad (e.g. human-level) scope and strong generalization capability, is at bottom qualitatively different from the creation, and study of synthetic intelligences with significantly narrower scope, and weaker generalization capability.” 

It doesn’t say there is no relation between weak AI, and AGI. AGI of course will need face recognition, NLP etc., but it will have the same level of intelligence as a normal human being. Do you know what is Turing test?. If you don’t know, I have explained in this article later, so keep reading.


(iii) What is Artificial Super Intelligence?

I have explained a couple of AIs before, you may able to guess this one. Yes, the AI which surpasses human intelligence level, even intelligent than the brightest minds ever existed. There is a term related to it called as Singularity. Not black holes, and things like that :), but it can threaten the existence of human beings. Yeah, but it is all Physics, computers, humans, and all.

A computer can easily multiply big numbers. If it gets same level of intelligence as us, a GPS tracker, communication devices, and the whole knowledge stored on the internet, and things like that, wouldn’t it be super intelligent.


3. What is Turing Test in AI?. What is Coffee Test?.

How will we be able to know if have successfully developed an AGI.

Turing Test:

Alan Turing was one of the first people to think about computer’s intelligence, or artificial intelligence. The Turing test(also called imitation game) can be used to determine if we have successfully developed an AGI.

So, it is a game in which there are 3 Players. Two Humans, and one computer which is AGI. Let us call human players A, and B. Computer would be Player C. Let’s say Player A, a human asks a question in a specific area to B, and C both, then Player A(human) has to decide based on the answers that which answer is came from which Player, Computer(C), or Human(B)?. This process in repeated for multiple times, and whatever Player A the questioner decides in recorded. If the questioner(Player A) is not able to correctly distinguish the Computer more than half, or 50% of times, then it is an AGI.

Coffee Test:

This idea was said, or given by Apple co-founder Steve Woz. He said like this- “I would consider a computer intelligent if it is able to go into my home, and make a cup of coffee for me given that it doesn’t know anything about me, or my house”. AI community took it seriously. It is actually a difficult task given that the robot doesn’t know anything about the home, where are the ingredients for coffee are put, how much quantity of ingredients will be needed, what time it takes to make coffee etc. Here is the link of an interview of Steve Woz about it.  

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